There are limits to when a debt collector can file a lawsuit over unpaid credit card debts. Each state has a unique statute of limitations worth being aware of.
CreditCards.com compiled this state-by-state listing of credit card debt collection statutes of limitations by individually researching each state’s laws and court rulings. We’ve linked to the law where it is available and have made additional notes below.
Credit card debt statute of limitations, by state
|Alabama||3 years||Title 6 Ch.2 Sec. 37||State law|
|Alaska||3 years||9.10.053||State law|
|Arizona||6 years||HB 24121||State law|
|Arkansas||5 years||4-3-118||State law|
|California||4 years||Code of Civil Procedure S.337||State law|
|Colorado||6 years||Colorado Revised Statutes Title 13 S.80-103.5||State law See note.2|
|Connecticut||6 years||Chapter 926 Sec. 52-576||State law See note.3|
|Washington, D.C.||3 years||12-301||D.C. code|
|Delaware||3 years||Title 10, Sec. 8106||State law|
|Florida||5 years||95.11||State law|
|Georgia||6 years||9-3-24||State law See note.5|
|Hawaii||6 years||657-1||State law|
|Idaho||5 years||5-216||State law|
|Illinois||5 years||Code of Civil Procedure 5/13-205||State law See note.7|
Scroll to 735 ILCS 5/13-205
|Indiana||6 years||Title 34 Art.11, 2-9||State law|
|Iowa||5 years||Ch. 614.1.4||State law See note.14|
|Kansas||3 years||60-512||State law|
|Kentucky||5 or 15 years||413.120 and 413.090||Conflicting state laws See note.12|
|Louisiana||3 years||Civil Code Sec. 2 Art. 3494||State law|
|Maine||6 years||14-205-752||State law|
|Maryland||3 years||Section 5-101||State law|
|Massachusetts||6 years||General Laws Part III Title V Ch. 260-2||State law|
|Michigan||6 years||Ch. 600.5807.8||State law|
|Minnesota||6 years||Civil Procedure Ch.541.05||State law|
|Mississippi||3 years||15-1-29||State law|
|Missouri||5 years||Ch. 516-120||State law|
|Montana||8 years||27-2-202||State law|
|Nebraska||4 years||25-206||State law|
|Nevada||4 years||11-190||State law|
|New Hampshire||6 years||382-A:3-118 (g)||State law|
|New Jersey||6 years||2A:14-1||State law|
|New Mexico||4 years||37-1-4||State law|
|New York||6 years||Civil Practice Law & Rules, 2-213||State law|
|North Carolina||3 years||Civil Procedure 1-52.1||State law|
|North Dakota||6 years||28-01-16||State law|
|Ohio||6 years||Courts – Common Pleas, Ch. 2305.07||State law|
|Oklahoma||5 years||12-95A(1)||State law|
Go to Title 12 and click on the link. Open the file and go to Section 12-95.
|Oregon||6 years||Oregon Revised Statutes, Civil Procedure Ch. 12.080||State law|
|Pennsylvania||4 years||Judicial Procedure 42 Pa. C.S. 5525(a)||State law|
|Rhode Island||10 years||9-1-13||State law|
|South Carolina||3 years||Code of Laws Title 15 Ch. 3 Sec.530||State law|
|South Dakota||6 years||15-2-13||State law|
|Tennessee||6 years||Title 28 3-109||State law|
|Texas||4 years||Civil Practice and Remedies Code, S.16.004||State law|
|Utah||6 years||78B-2-309||State law See note.10|
|Vermont||6 years||9A-3-118||State law|
|Virginia||3 years||8.01-246||State law. See note.13|
|Washington||6 years||Revised Code of Washington 4.16.040||State law|
|West Virginia||10 years||55-2-6||State law|
|Wisconsin||6 years||893.43||State law|
|Wyoming||8 years||1-3-105||State law|
1On April 12, 2011, the governor signed House Bill 2412 into law. This bill amends Section 12-548 of the state code and makes the statute of limitations for credit card debt six years.
2Clicking on this link takes you to a third-party website. Click “I Agree” to the terms. Click on the Colorado Revised Statutes link on the left column. On the page that appears, type 13-80-103.5 on the search line and hit enter. Scroll down to and click on the link for 13-80-103.5 to go to the section.
3Go to Statutes, then Browse statutes, scroll to Ch. 926, Sec. 52-576.
5 According to the Georgia Department of Law, appeals court cases have found the six-year period for contracts applies to credit card debt. See Phoenix Recovery Group Inc. v. Mehta, 2008.
6 An Illinois appeals court ruled on May 20, 2009, that a credit card agreement did not qualify as a written contract subject to the 10 year statute of limitations.
7 Court decisions have affirmed that card agreements qualify as written contracts with a 10-year statute of limitations. However, the state appeals court ruled in 2011 that the plaintiff must provide the debtor’s actual agreement, not a generic agreement. If the debt collector can’t produce an original credit card agreement, the five-year clock for nonwritten contracts applies, the court ruled. See Gemini v New, 2011.
10 Utah courts generally apply law of the card issuer’s state.
11 See section 893.43.
12Conflicting state laws and a lack of definitive court ruling make it too hard to say whether Kentucky’s five-year statute or its 15-year statute applies to credit card debts.
13Three-year expiration applies to unwritten contracts; courts may apply five-year clock for written contracts if creditor produces signed account agreement and documentation of repayment terms.
14The 10-year expiration for written contracts could apply if the creditor was able to produce sufficient documentation of the amount of the debt. In practice, however, creditors have only general descriptions of the account, such as the terms and conditions, which fails to meet the standard for a written contract of debt.
- The chart shows the time limit on revolving credit accounts such as credit card agreements. Most state laws and codes do not refer specifically to “credit cards” or “credit card agreements.” Instead, the statutes tend to use general terms such as “written contracts” or “open accounts.” State laws are subject to change.
- Judges deciding specific cases may interpret state laws differently; those court rulings may then be overturned. Judges also may rule on which state’s law should apply — the one where the consumer resides, or where the card issuer is located.
- While the federal Truth In Lending Act defines credit cards as “open-end credit plans,” that’s irrelevant to the discussion of state statutes of limitation. State laws are concerned with contracts and agreements, and how long they may be enforced.
- The most recent full update of the chart was in March 2022. Write to Editors@CreditCards.com to report updates or corrections.
What a statute of limitations is, how it works
Creditors and debt collectors have a limited time window in which to sue debtors for nonpayment of credit card bills. That limit is set by a state’s statute of limitations. These laws exist to protect people from claims being brought after evidence has disappeared. Anyone with unpaid credit card debt should know their state’s statute.
According to the U.S. Federal Trade Commission (FTC), “In most states, the statute of limitations period on debts is between three and 10 years; in some states, the period is longer.” Debts that have lingered longer than the statutes allow are often referred to as “time-barred debts.”
“If a debt collector sues you to collect a time-barred debt, you can have the suit dismissed by letting the court or judge know the debt is, indeed, time-barred,” according to the FTC.
Debt collectors and consumer advocates, however, caution that the statute of limitations (SOL) does not prevent debt collectors from attempting to collect on debts. They just cannot successfully sue to collect the debts — assuming the debtor shows up in court to assert his or her rights.
“Debt doesn’t go away just because it goes beyond a time threshold,” said Mark Schiffman, vice president of public affairs at ACA International, the collection industry’s largest trade group.
Mary Spector, an associate law professor at Southern Methodist University’s Dedman School of Law in Dallas, says many consumers ignore court notices about old debts and end up losing cases that might otherwise be thrown out of court because the statute of limitations has run out.
“In Texas, it’s usually up to the defendant to show that the debt is time-barred under the statute of limitations,” Spector says. Her advice: Don’t ignore the court papers and get a consumer lawyer to represent you.
Credit card debt: Which state’s law applies?
Nearly all the top credit card issuers name the state whose laws should apply to their card agreements. Here’s what they say:
|Issuer||State||Years credit card debt is collectible in court|
|Bank of America||North Carolina||3|
|Wells Fargo||South Dakota||6|
*Capital One says Virginia law rules, unless the cardholder’s state has a longer statute.
**Five years if the creditor produces signed account agreement and documentation of interest rate and repayment terms.
***US Bank’s terms and conditions agreement specifies which state law should apply to arbitration, but not for other matters, such as unpaid debt.
Editor’s note: The information on this table is accurate as of March 9, 2022.
Court rulings may take precedence
To construct the chart above, CreditCards.com examined statutes and judicial opinions and consulted legal experts to cover all 50 states and the District of Columbia. In most states, the statute of limitation is clear. In some, however, we could find no definitive answer because of ambiguities in state law or conflicts between the law and court rulings.
The uncertainty over when credit card debt expires arises because state laws governing contracts are interpreted by the courts when they are applied to individual circumstances, and those interpretations may change over time.
That was the case in Georgia in January 2008, when a Georgia Court of Appeals ruled (in Hill v. American Express) that the statute of limitations on an unpaid credit card debt was six years. The Georgia code sets the limit on open-ended accounts at four years, but the appeals court applied the law for written contracts to card debt in this case. Another 2008 Court of Appeals ruling (in Phoenix Recovery Group, Inc. v. Mehta) affirmed the Hill ruling and settled the law in the state, according to the Georgia Department of Law.
In other states, it remains difficult to predict how courts will rule when faced with a question about expiring credit card debt. Kentucky specifies a five-year expiration period for oral contracts and 15 years for written contracts. The period that will apply to card debt is unclear; some courts in other states have held that credit card agreements, because they can be changed unilaterally by the card issuer, do not qualify as written contracts. Legal experts said they are unaware of precedent-setting rulings within Kentucky on the question, leaving courts to weigh the circumstances and documents of each case individually.
The Fair Debt Collection Practices Act, the federal law that governs how and when debt collectors can contact consumers and collect on unpaid bills, dictates where legal action on debts can be filed. According to Section 811 of the law, debt collectors may file suit in the jurisdiction where the “consumer signed the contract” or where the consumer lives.
Some credit card agreements may stipulate that the laws governing the home state of the issuer, not the consumer, determine the terms and major provisions of the contract. That means that if the credit card holder lives in Maine, but the issuer is based in Delaware, the Delaware statute of limitations may apply.
Do not confuse the statute of limitations with the length of time that a debt may remain on a credit report. A bankruptcy, for instance, will remain on a credit report for 10 years regardless of the statute of limitations. If a creditor successfully wins a judgment for payment of a debt, that information can remain on a credit report for seven years.
When does the clock start to tick? It may vary by state, but generally the statute of limitations begins when a credit card account becomes delinquent — the date of the last payment. However, in some states the clock begins to tick six months after the last payment. To determine the deadline to file suit on the debt, add the number of years of the statute of limitations to the start time.
Consumers should be aware of a practice called re-aging of old debts. The clock on the statute of limitations may start anew if a consumer makes a payment — even a small amount — on a debt that has exceeded or is approaching the end of the statute of limitations. Acknowledging an old debt may also extend the time limit on potential debt collection lawsuits. Consumer advocates now advise debtors not to acknowledge old debts or debts they don’t recognize as their own to avoid inadvertently resetting the clock on the statute of limitations.
“Any new activity on it could re-age it and make it more collectable,” says Lauren Saunders, managing attorney for the National Consumer Law Center, a consumer rights group. “You’re better off ignoring a call about an ancient debt. It’s best to send them a letter saying I don’t recognize this or please verify it.”
Knowing what the statute of limitations for the state you live in and the state whose laws apply to your specific card issuer’s cardholder agreements can help you better understand your consumer rights when it comes to credit card debt.
These statute of limitations help protect consumers from debt collectors who may try to pursue old forms of debt. Take some time to research how debt is handled in the state you live in so you’re fully aware of your rights.