The appealing big headline in the credit card promo is often hedged and limited by the fine print — so you had better understand it
Dear New Frugal You,
What are some tips you have about the fine print of credit cards? — TD
You pack a lot of question into just a few short words. And you’re absolutely right to be concerned with what’s written in all that fine print in the terms and conditions of your credit card agreement.
To help answer your question, I contacted John Ulzheimer, president of consumer education at SmartCredit.com. He says, “When it comes to credit card agreements, the big print giveth and the fine print taketh away.” It’s almost as if the terms and conditions are written in a way that makes the average consumer not want to read them. I’ll leave it up to you to decide whether that’s intentional or not. A CreditCards.com special report evaluated more than 1,200 card agreements for readability, and found the average card agreement was so complex that it was unreadable to four out of five Americans.
In fairness, over the past few years some agreements have gotten a little clearer. That was one of the goals of the Credit CARD Act of 2009. But there are still a lot of traps for the unwary.
Ulzheimer points out some of those dangers. “The provisions of the credit card agreements you sign allow the credit card issuer to do a variety of things, many of which you may not have noticed in the fine print. For example, credit card agreements allow credit card issuers to pull your credit reports at their leisure to determine if your credit scores have dropped.” Remember that if your score drops, the credit card company will look for a reason to increase your interest rate or reduce your credit limit.
Ulzheimer goes on to say, “Credit card agreements also allow the issuers to increase your interest rates to a predetermined amount called the “penalty rate” or “default rate” if you miss payments. According to a CreditCards.com survey of major credit card issuers, the mean default rate is 29 percent .
“And finally,” he says, “the fine print likely notifies you that your interest rate is what’s referred to as a variable rate. That means it can change without notice if the prime rate increases. Variable rate credit cards are often tied to the prime rate and when the prime rate goes up, so does your interest rate.”
That last point surprises many people. They may think that they’re getting a fixed rate — unchangeable, like many home mortgages. The vast majority of cards issued today are variable. Even if you have one of the rare cards advertised as having a fixed rate, the rate is fixed for only the first year, under the CARD Act, but then your credit card company can raise it as long as it gives you 45 days’ notice.
The fine print also may hedge and limit the appealing headlines that caught your eye in the promotional pieces. Banks offering credit cards have also been known to be very creative in offering zero percent cards. Like fixed rates, “zero percent” is defined in the fine print. Often, this “teaser rate” is only for balance transfers and any new charges will incur a higher interest rate.
There’s no end to the surprises that can be hidden in the fine print — especially if you choose not to read it. Remember, you’re bound to that contract — whether you’ve read it or not — the first time you use the card.
The bottom line? You really need to read all the terms and conditions on your credit card accounts. If you don’t understand them, ask someone who’s better versed in legalese to help translate. It’s important to know what your rights and obligations are before those terms get you into trouble.
See related: Avoiding credit card traps